Photography Glossary

When you’re skilled at something, you have a big job to understand and use specialized language. The photography world is full of terms you should be familiar with. You’ve probably tried to figure out the meaning of a word while reading an article or a post by a photographer. Some terms are familiar, like composition or JPEG. But what about terms like chimping, dynamic range, or hyperfocal distance?

To become a pro in photography, you need to learn all the important terms. Are you ready to have a wealth of knowledge in your brain? This glossary covers every term you need to know to understand photography better.

Product Photography

Product photography is the art of taking high-quality photos of products to showcase them in advertisements, catalogs, websites, or social media. It often focuses on highlighting the details, features, and uniqueness of the product in an appealing way.


In photography, noise refers to the random variations in brightness or color in an image that can make it look grainy or speckled. It is usually more noticeable in low light conditions or when using a higher ISO setting. Noise can affect the overall quality and clarity of a photograph.


Backlight in photography refers to when the primary source of light is behind the subject, shining towards the camera. This can create a silhouette effect or add a halo around the subject, emphasizing their shape and outline.


Catchlight refers to the highlight in a subject’s eyes caused by direct light sources. It adds depth and life to the eyes in photography.


A picture taken with a camera to capture a moment or scene. It can be saved on film or in digital form.

Golden Hour

This is the magical time shortly after sunrise or before sunset when the sun is low, creating soft and warm light that enhances photographs. It is a favorite time for photographers due to its flattering and atmospheric qualities.

Exposure Bracketing

Exposure bracketing is a technique in photography where multiple shots are taken of the same scene at different exposure settings. This can include varying the shutter speed, aperture, or ISO to ensure at least one shot has the optimal exposure. By combining these shots, photographers can ensure they capture the full dynamic range of a scene.


APS-H refers to a sensor size in digital cameras that is larger than APS-C but smaller than full-frame. It offers a compromise between the two, providing better image quality than APS-C while being more affordable than full-frame.


In photography, ‘print’ refers to a physical copy of a photograph that has been developed and produced on paper. This allows the image to be displayed or shared outside of digital formats.

Secret Photography

Secret photography is the practice of taking photos without the subject being aware of it. This can be done discreetly to capture candid moments naturally.

Mirrorless Camera

A type of digital camera that does not use a mirror to reflect light into the optical viewfinder. Instead, it uses a digital display or electronic viewfinder to show the image before capturing it. Mirrorless cameras tend to be more compact and lighter than traditional DSLR cameras.

Spray and Pray

A technique in photography where a photographer rapidly takes multiple shots without much thought or composition, hoping that at least one of them turns out good. It’s like capturing a lot of images quickly and then praying that one of them is great.

Pixel Peeping

The act of meticulously examining photos at high magnification to scrutinize individual pixels for flaws or imperfections.

Digital Asset Management (DAM)

Digital Asset Management (DAM) is a system used by photographers to organize, store, and retrieve their digital files efficiently. It helps photographers keep track of their photos, videos, and other media by tagging them with keywords, metadata, and other information for easier searching and retrieval.

35mm Equivalent

The 35mm equivalent refers to how the field of view in a digital camera compares to that of a 35mm film camera. It helps photographers understand what focal length on a digital camera would be similar to using a 35mm film camera.

Stop Up/Down

Adjusting the exposure of a photograph by increasing (stop up) or decreasing (stop down) the amount of light entering the camera, typically done by changing the aperture or shutter speed settings.


In photography, a gobo is a physical object placed in front of a light source to control the shape and direction of the light. It is often used to create patterns or shadows in the photographed scene.


A diffuser is a device used in photography to spread out and soften harsh light. It helps create more even lighting by reducing contrast and shadows in photos.


Overexposure in photography refers to an image that is too bright or washed out because too much light reached the camera’s sensor. This can result in loss of detail and colors appearing washed out. It is important to adjust exposure settings to avoid overexposure.

Twin-Lens Reflex (TLR)

Twin-Lens Reflex (TLR) is a type of camera that has two lenses situated, one on top of the other. The top lens is used for viewing and focusing while the bottom lens takes the actual photograph. This design allows for easier focus and composition.

Ambient Light

Ambient light refers to the natural light present in a scene, like sunlight or light from indoor fixtures. It is important in photography as it helps set the overall mood and tone of the image.


Exposure refers to the amount of light that reaches the camera sensor when taking a photograph. It directly affects how bright or dark an image appears. Proper exposure is crucial to achieving a well-balanced and clear photograph.


GAS stands for Gear Acquisition Syndrome. It’s a condition where photographers are constantly seeking to acquire new photography equipment, often impulsively and beyond what they actually need.

Hot Shoe

A hot shoe is a mounting point on the top of a camera where you can attach external accessories like a flash unit. It usually has electrical contacts to communicate with the attached device and trigger it when needed.

500 Rule

An informal guideline used in photography to determine the maximum exposure time for capturing sharp nighttime shots of stars without streaks. The rule states that to prevent star trails in your photos, you should divide 500 by the focal length of your lens to get the longest exposure time in seconds.


A photographer is someone who captures images using a camera. They focus on composition, lighting, and subject to create visually appealing photographs.

Digital Photography

Using electronic sensors to capture images instead of traditional film, allowing for immediate viewing and sharing of photographs on digital devices.


TIFF stands for Tagged Image File Format. It is a popular file format used in photography to store high-quality images without losing any details or quality. TIFF files are uncompressed, which means they are larger in size but maintain all the image data, making them suitable for professional printing and editing.

Hard Light

Hard light refers to bright and direct light that produces harsh shadows with sharp edges. It is often seen on a sunny day with the sun high in the sky, creating strong contrasts in the image.

CCD Sensor

In photography, CCD sensor refers to a type of image sensor that converts light into electrical signals. It is commonly found in digital cameras and captures high-quality images with good color accuracy.

Focal Plane Shutter (FPS)

Focal Plane Shutter (FPS) is a mechanism in a camera that controls the amount of time light hits the camera sensor. It consists of two curtains that move across the sensor plane to expose the sensor to light for a specific duration, allowing you to capture sharp and well-exposed images.


Information Interchange Model for Metadata. It is a standard for exchanging metadata in photographs, including details like title, caption, keywords, and copyright information.

Field of View (FOV)

Field of View, often abbreviated as FOV, refers to the extent of the scene that a camera lens can capture. A wider FOV means more of the scene is visible in the photograph, while a narrower FOV captures less.

Scene Modes

Scene modes are pre-programmed settings on a camera that automatically adjust various parameters such as exposure, white balance, and focus to best capture specific types of scenes like portrait, landscape, night, or sports. They are useful for beginners or when you want quick presets for common shooting scenarios.


Stands for Light Emitting Diode. In photography, LED lights are used to provide continuous lighting for photoshoots. They are energy-efficient and produce a consistent light temperature, making them popular for both amateur and professional photographers.

Guide Number (GN)

The Guide Number is a measure of the power of a camera flash. It helps determine the intensity of light that the flash can provide at a certain distance. A higher Guide Number indicates a more powerful flash.

Electronic Viewfinder (EVF)

Electronic Viewfinder (EVF) is a small screen located on the camera that displays a digital preview of the image you are about to take. It shows you what the final photo will look like, helping you compose the shot and make necessary adjustments before capturing the image.

Image Quality (IQ)

Image Quality (IQ) refers to how clear, detailed, and visually appealing an image appears. It includes aspects such as sharpness, color accuracy, brightness, and resolution.

Wedding Photography

Taking photos to capture precious moments during weddings, including the ceremony, reception, and portraits of the couple and guests.

Focus Stacking

Focus stacking is a photography technique where multiple images, each with a different focal point, are combined to create one image with a greater depth of field. This is often used in macro photography to ensure all elements of the subject are in focus.

Multiple Exposure

Multiple exposure is a technique in photography where more than one image is combined into a single final image. This can result in creative and artistic effects by blending different elements together.


A device used to hold a camera steady during photography. It consists of three legs that can be adjusted for height and angle to provide stability for the camera.

Intentional Camera Movement (ICM)

Intentional Camera Movement refers to a creative technique where the photographer intentionally moves the camera while taking a photo. This intentional movement can result in blurred or abstract images, adding a sense of dynamism and creativity to the photograph.


JPEG is a common image file format that uses lossy compression to reduce file size. It is widely used for photos on websites and digital cameras.


In photography, an umbrella is a type of lighting modifier used to soften and diffuse harsh light. It is often positioned between the light source and the subject to create a more flattering and even lighting effect.

Straight Photography

Straight photography refers to a style of photography where images are captured without any alterations or manipulations. The aim is to represent the subject matter truthfully and objectively, without any special effects or editing tricks.

Point-and-Shoot Camera

A simple camera designed for easy operation, where you just ‘point’ it at your subject and ‘shoot’ to take a picture. It usually has automatic settings and is great for casual photography.

Image Stabilization (IS)

Image Stabilization (IS) is a technology in cameras that helps reduce blurriness in photos caused by camera shake or movement. It essentially helps in capturing clearer and sharper images by compensating for shaky hands or vibrations during the shot.

Shutter Lag

Shutter lag refers to the delay between the time you press the shutter button to take a photo and the moment the camera actually captures the image. It can cause you to miss capturing a moment, especially in fast-moving subjects.

Graduated Neutral Density Filter (GND)

A Graduated Neutral Density Filter (GND) is a two-toned filter used in photography to balance the exposure between the bright and dark areas of a scene. It helps to reduce the contrast between different parts of the photo, making it useful for landscapes where the sky is much brighter than the foreground.

Wildlife Photography

Wildlife photography is taking pictures of animals in their natural habitats. It requires patience, skill, and sometimes luck to capture these amazing moments in nature.

High-Key Lighting

High-key lighting is a photography technique where the scene is brightly lit with minimal shadows. This results in a bright and airy look without harsh contrasts between light and dark areas.

Continuous Shooting

Continuous shooting in photography refers to the ability of a camera to capture multiple images in rapid succession with just one press of the shutter button. This feature is handy for capturing fast-moving subjects or creating a series of shots to choose from.

Composite Photograph

A composite photograph is created by combining multiple images or elements to produce a single final image. This technique allows for creating unique scenes or visual effects by blending different elements seamlessly.

Landscape Photography

Landscape photography is a style of photography that captures wide outdoor spaces like mountains, forests, and beaches. It focuses on capturing the beauty of nature and the environment.

Sunny 16

An old rule in photography that suggests settings for a manual camera based on sunny conditions. It recommends setting the aperture at f/16 and the shutter speed closest to the ISO value for proper exposure.

Candid Photograph

A candid photograph is a picture taken spontaneously without the subject being aware. It captures natural moments and expressions, resulting in authentic and unposed images.


GPS stands for Global Positioning System, which is a technology that uses satellites to determine the exact geographical location of a photographer. It helps photographers track where their photos were taken and can be useful for organizing photos based on location.

Program (P)

In photography, Program mode (P) is a camera setting that allows the photographer to control certain aspects of the exposure while the camera automatically adjusts other settings like aperture and shutter speed to achieve a properly exposed image. It provides a balance between manual control and automation.

Crushed Shadows

Crushed shadows refer to dark areas in a photograph where the details are lost due to lack of exposure. This usually happens when shadows are too dark and appear as solid black patches without any visible texture or tonal variation.


In photography, a flash is a device that emits a sudden burst of light to illuminate a scene or subject. It is often used in low light conditions or to add fill light to reduce harsh shadows. Flash can be built into the camera or used externally as a separate unit.

Diffused Light

Diffused light refers to a soft, even light that has been scattered or softened before reaching the subject. This type of light creates minimal shadows and reduces harsh contrasts, resulting in a more flattering and balanced look in photography.

Portrait Mode

Portrait Mode is a feature on some cameras or smartphones that automatically adjusts settings to blur the background of a subject, creating a visually pleasing portrait with a focused subject and a blurred background.

Zone System

The Zone System is a method used in photography to determine the optimal exposure for a photograph by dividing the tonal range into different zones. This helps photographers control the brightness and darkness of different parts of the image.


ETTR stands for ‘Expose To The Right.’ It is a technique in photography where you intentionally overexpose an image to capture more light information. This is done to maximize the amount of data in the brightest parts of the image, which can be useful for recovering details in post-processing.


In photography, focus refers to the sharpness and clarity of an image. When a camera is focused correctly on a subject, that subject appears clear and detailed in the resulting photograph. Achieving proper focus is important to make sure your photos look crisp and well-defined.


The background in a photograph refers to the area behind the main subject. It helps to provide context or complement the subject but should not distract from it. It is important to consider the background when composing a photo to ensure it enhances the overall image.

Macro Lens

A macro lens is a type of lens used in photography to capture extreme close-up images of small subjects with great detail and clarity. It allows photographers to focus on capturing tiny details that are not easily visible to the naked eye, making small objects appear larger than life in the final image.


Clipping in photography refers to the loss of detail in the shadows or highlights of an image due to overexposure or underexposure. It results in areas of pure black or white without any texture or information.

Blue Hour

The time of day just before sunrise or after sunset when the sky appears blue creating a unique lighting effect for photography.


A softbox is a type of light modifier used in photography to create softer, more diffused lighting. It typically consists of a translucent material in the shape of a box that covers a light source. Softboxes help reduce harsh shadows, making them ideal for portrait photography and other situations where a gentle, even light is desired.

Memory Card

A small device used in cameras to store digital photos and videos. It acts like a digital film roll, storing the images and videos captured by the camera.

Copyright Infringement

Copyright infringement in photography refers to the unauthorized use of someone else’s photography work without their permission. This can include using, copying, or distributing photos without proper licensing or accreditation.


35mm refers to the standard film and sensor size used in photography. It is characterized by its width of 35 millimeters. This size is commonly used in analog film cameras and some digital cameras, providing a good balance between image quality and compactness.

Bulb Mode

Bulb mode is a setting on a camera that allows the shutter to stay open for as long as the shutter button is pressed down. This setting is useful for long exposure shots in low light conditions or when capturing night photography where a longer exposure time is needed to properly expose the image.


Luminosity in photography refers to the brightness or intensity of light in an image. It can affect the overall mood and atmosphere of a photo, as well as the visibility and clarity of details.


The diaphragm in photography refers to the mechanism inside the camera lens that controls the size of the aperture. It opens and closes to regulate the amount of light that enters the camera and affects the depth of field in a photograph.


MTF stands for Modulation Transfer Function. It measures the ability of a lens to accurately transmit contrast and detail from the object to the image. A higher MTF value indicates better sharpness and clarity in photos.


A single-legged camera support device used to provide stability when taking pictures or recording videos. It is lighter and easier to carry compared to a tripod, allowing for more flexibility in capturing shots while still reducing camera shake.


A device that emits a brief, intense burst of light to illuminate the subject being photographed. Strobes are often used in photography to freeze motion and create well-lit images in various conditions.


In photography, highlights refer to the brightest parts of an image where light is reflected the most. These areas typically have high intensity and can sometimes appear overexposed or blown out if too bright.


In photography, ‘glass’ refers to camera lenses. Lenses made of glass are fundamental tools in capturing images because they help to focus and magnify the subject being photographed.

Four Thirds

Four Thirds refers to a standard for digital cameras that uses a sensor size of 4/3 inches. This standard was developed by Olympus and Panasonic and is known for its compact size and interchangeable lenses, offering a balance between image quality and portability.


Grain refers to the visible specks or dots in a photograph, typically caused by the composition of film emulsion or higher ISO settings in digital cameras. It can give photos a textured or vintage look.


A pixel is the smallest unit of a digital image. It is a tiny square that contains color information and when combined with other pixels creates the overall image.

Gray Card

A gray card is a neutral reference tool used in photography to ensure accurate color balance and exposure. It is typically a small card that is 18% gray in color, which reflects light evenly. Photographers often use a gray card to set custom white balance and exposure settings for their camera, resulting in more accurate and natural-looking images.

Cold Shoe

A cold shoe in photography lingo refers to a simple, unpowered mounting bracket typically found on top of camera bodies or accessories. It is used to attach external equipment such as flash units, microphones, or other accessories that do not require electrical connections.

Low-Pass Filter

A low-pass filter is a tool used in photography to reduce or eliminate high-frequency details or noise in an image. It helps create a smoother appearance by allowing only low-frequency information to pass through while blocking high-frequency information.

Straight Out of Camera (SOOC)

This refers to a photograph that has not been edited or modified in any way after being taken by the camera. It is the original image as captured by the camera.


Panning is a technique in photography where you move your camera horizontally along with a moving subject to capture it in focus while blurring the background. It creates a sense of motion in the image.


ISO in photography refers to the sensitivity of your camera’s sensor to light. A higher ISO number means the sensor is more sensitive to light, allowing you to shoot in low light conditions but may introduce more digital noise in the image. A lower ISO number means less sensitivity to light, resulting in cleaner images but requiring more light for proper exposure.


A darkroom is a special room used in photography to develop and print photos. It needs to be completely dark to prevent light from exposing photographic paper. Photographers use chemicals and equipment in the darkroom to bring out images on photographic paper.

Burst Mode

Burst mode on a camera allows you to capture multiple photos in rapid succession by holding down the shutter button. It’s great for capturing fast action or getting the perfect shot of a moving subject.

Manual Focus (MF)

Manual Focus (MF) is a feature on cameras where the focus of the lens is adjusted manually by the photographer instead of the camera itself. This allows the photographer to have more control over what parts of the image are sharp and in focus.

Gigapixel (GP)

Gigapixel (GP) refers to a digital image that is made up of one billion pixels. It captures an extremely high level of detail, allowing you to zoom in closely without losing image quality. Gigapixel images are great for creating large prints or for viewing highly detailed photographs.

Internal Focusing

Internal focusing is a feature in some camera lenses where the elements inside the lens move to help focus on the subject without the entire lens barrel rotating. This allows for faster and quieter autofocusing, while also preventing changes in the physical length of the lens during focusing.


ETTL stands for Evaluative Through-The-Lens, which is a technology used in modern camera systems to automatically determine the optimal flash exposure based on the scene’s lighting conditions and subject distance. It helps photographers achieve well-exposed images without having to manually adjust flash settings.

Wide Open

In photography, ‘wide open’ refers to shooting with the camera lens aperture set at its largest opening, allowing more light to enter and creating a shallower depth of field. This technique is often used to achieve a blurry background and make the subject stand out.


A portfolio is like a showcase of a photographer’s best work. It’s a collection of their top photos to demonstrate their skills and style. Think of it like a picture resume that photographers use to impress clients or employers.

White Balance (WB)

White balance is a setting on your camera that helps to adjust the colors in your photos so that whites appear white, regardless of the lighting conditions. It ensures that the colors in your photos look more natural and accurate.


Resolution in photography refers to the amount of detail captured in an image. It is typically measured in megapixels and determines how sharp and clear an image will appear when printed or displayed on a screen.


EV stands for Exposure Value. It is a way to represent a combination of aperture and shutter speed settings on a camera that give the same exposure. It helps photographers adjust their settings to get the right amount of light in their photos.


Vignetting is a term in photography that refers to the darkening of corners or edges of a photograph. It can happen naturally due to lens limitations or intentionally for artistic effect.

Normal Lens

A normal lens is a type of lens that has a focal length similar to the diagonal length of the image sensor or film being used. It provides a field of view that is similar to what the human eye sees, making it ideal for capturing scenes with natural perspective.

Street Photography

Street photography involves capturing candid moments of everyday life in public places, usually without the subjects’ knowledge. It focuses on capturing genuine emotions and interactions on the streets.


Chimping is the act of reviewing photos on the camera screen immediately after taking them. It is named after the curious sounds photographers sometimes make when examining their pictures, resembling a chimp.

Single-Lens Reflex (SLR)

An old-school camera where you look through the viewfinder and what you see is exactly what the lens sees. When you press the shutter button, a mirror flips up to allow light to hit the digital sensor or film.

Large Format

Large Format in photography refers to a type of camera that uses film sizes larger than 35mm. It allows for higher resolution images with more detail and clarity, making it ideal for fine art and detailed studio work.


Saturation in photography refers to the intensity of colors in an image. High saturation means the colors are vibrant and bold, while low saturation results in muted or faded colors.

Fisheye Lens

A fisheye lens is a wide-angle lens that creates a unique, distorted look by bending straight lines. It captures an extremely wide field of view, often giving a rounded appearance to the image like looking through a fishbowl.

Computational Photography

Computational photography is a technique that uses computational processing and algorithms to enhance or manipulate digital images. It allows for features such as depth of field adjustments, image stacking, and low-light enhancement.

Mirror Lockup

Mirror Lockup is a feature in some cameras that lifts the mirror before the image is taken to reduce vibration and improve sharpness in photographs, especially at slow shutter speeds or when using telephoto lenses.

Camera Obscura

Camera Obscura is an early device used in photography where an image is projected onto a surface through a small hole in a darkened room. This technique was used before the invention of modern cameras.


The lens is a piece of glass that sits between the camera body and the subject you are photographing. It helps to focus light onto the camera’s sensor, allowing you to capture clear and sharp images. Different lenses have various focal lengths which affect how much of the scene is captured and the perspective of the image.

Low-Key Lighting

Low-key lighting is a photography technique where the scene is mainly illuminated with darker tones, creating dramatic and moody effects. It involves using minimal light to create strong contrasts between light and shadow, often emphasizing shapes and textures.

Lighting Ratio

Lighting ratio in photography refers to the difference in brightness between the highlights and shadows in an image. It helps create contrast and mood in a photograph by controlling the balance of light and shadow.


Metering in photography refers to the process of measuring the amount of light in a scene to help determine the camera settings for proper exposure. Different metering modes like evaluative, spot, and center-weighted metering help photographers choose where to measure the light from in a scene.

Noise Reduction

Noise reduction in photography is a technique used to reduce the grainy or speckled appearance in photos, making them smoother and clearer. This process helps to improve the overall quality of the image by minimizing unwanted visual distractions caused by digital noise.


LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. In photography, LCD refers to the screen on the back of a camera that displays images and settings. It allows photographers to review photos they have taken, adjust camera settings, and navigate menu options.

Crop Sensor

A crop sensor is a type of image sensor in a camera that is smaller than a full-frame sensor. It results in a narrower field of view compared to a full-frame sensor, making objects appear closer or ‘cropped in’ when taking photos.


Bracketing in photography is a technique where multiple shots are taken at different exposures to ensure capturing the best possible image. This helps to cover a range of lighting situations and ensures that at least one image will have the optimal exposure.

Barrel Distortion

When straight lines appear to be curved outwards towards the edges of a photograph, distorting the image and making it look bulging like a barrel.

Memory Card Reader

A device that allows you to transfer images or videos from a memory card to a computer or other device. It reads the data stored on the memory card and makes it accessible for viewing or editing on your computer.

Micro Four Thirds (MFT or M4/3)

It’s a type of camera system with a smaller sensor size than traditional DSLR cameras. It offers a more compact and lightweight design while still providing high-quality images.

Manual Mode

Manual mode in photography refers to a setting on the camera where the photographer has full control over all settings such as aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. This mode allows for more creative freedom and customization to get the desired effect in a photograph.


Underexposure refers to a situation in photography where not enough light reaches the camera sensor, resulting in a darker image than desired. This can lead to loss of detail and overall poor image quality.

Burst Rate

Burst rate refers to the number of continuous shots a camera can take within a certain period of time. It is useful for capturing fast-moving subjects or action scenes.

Macro Photography

Macro photography is a type of photography where you take extremely close-up shots of small subjects to capture details that are not visible with the naked eye. It allows you to explore the intricate world of tiny things like insects, plants, or textures.

Circular Polarizer Filter

A circular polarizer filter is a photography accessory that helps to reduce reflections and glare from surfaces such as water or glass. It also increases the saturation of colors, making them appear more vibrant in the final image. This filter can be rotated to adjust the amount of polarization effect depending on the shooting conditions.


Timelapse is a technique in photography where frames are captured at set intervals to create a fast-forwarded video showing changes that occur over time, like the movement of clouds or the blooming of a flower.

Hyperfocal Distance

In photography, hyperfocal distance refers to the distance at which a lens must be focused in order to achieve the maximum depth of field. By focusing at the hyperfocal distance, both near and far objects will appear sharp in the final image.

Kelvin (K)

Kelvin is a unit of measurement used in photography to define color temperature. It represents the color of light emitted by a light source, where lower values correspond to warm colors like red and higher values correspond to cool colors like blue.

Metering Mode

Metering mode is a setting on your camera that determines how it measures the brightness of a scene to calculate the correct exposure. Different metering modes include evaluative, center-weighted, and spot metering.


A tool used in photography to bounce, redirect, or soften light by reflecting it onto the subject. Reflectors come in various shapes and sizes and can help photographers control lighting conditions during a photoshoot.

Nature Photography

Nature photography is capturing photos of natural landscapes, wildlife, plants, and other outdoor elements. It aims to showcase the beauty and wonders of the natural world through images.


Metadata is information about a photograph that is not visible in the image itself. It includes details such as the camera settings used, the date and time the photo was taken, and even location information. This data is useful for organizing and categorizing photos, as well as for understanding the context in which the photo was captured.

Long Exposure

Long exposure in photography refers to a technique where the camera’s shutter is open for a prolonged period of time, allowing more light to enter and be captured by the sensor or film. This can create unique effects such as motion blur, light trails, or silky smooth waterfalls.


An enlarger is a device used in traditional photography to project and enlarge a photographic negative onto light-sensitive paper to create a print. It allows photographers to adjust the size and focus of the image before printing.


Bokeh refers to the aesthetic quality of the out-of-focus areas in a photograph. It usually appears as soft, blurry circles in the background, created when the lens focuses on a specific subject while other elements become pleasantly blurred.


In photography, film refers to a light-sensitive material used to capture images. It comes in different types like black and white or color, and is loaded into cameras to record pictures through a chemical process.

Rear-Curtain Sync

Rear-curtain sync is a camera flash setting that fires the flash at the end of the exposure rather than at the beginning. This technique creates trailing light effects behind moving subjects, providing a more natural look to the captured motion.

Urban Exploration

Urban Exploration, also known as urbex, is the act of exploring man-made structures, usually abandoned or off-limits locations in urban areas. It involves photographing these places to capture their unique atmosphere and history.

Image Sensor

An electronic component in a camera that converts light into electronic signals. It captures the image by detecting and recording light particles, which are then transformed into digital data for processing and storage.

Dust Spots

Dust spots refer to tiny particles of dust that can easily get on your camera sensor or lens. These spots show up in your photos as dark circles or specks, especially when using a small aperture. To prevent them, regularly clean your gear and be mindful when changing lenses.

Extension Tube

An extension tube is a hollow, light-tight tube that is placed between the camera body and the lens to allow for closer focusing distances. By increasing the distance between the lens and the camera sensor, it enables macro photography and magnifies the subject.


The F-number in photography refers to the aperture setting of a camera lens. It represents the ratio of the focal length of the lens to the diameter of the entrance pupil. A lower F-number means a wider aperture, allowing more light to pass through the lens, while a higher F-number results in a smaller aperture and less light entering the camera. F-number also affects depth of field, with lower F-numbers producing shallower depths of field and higher F-numbers creating greater depths of field.

Exposure Triangle

Exposure Triangle refers to the relationship between three main elements in photography – aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. Understanding how these elements interact with each other is crucial for achieving a well-exposed photograph.

Dynamic Range

Dynamic Range in photography refers to the range of tones between the brightest and darkest areas in an image. A wider dynamic range allows a camera to capture more details in both shadowed and highlighted areas.


E-TTL stands for Evaluative Through-The-Lens metering and is a type of automatic flash exposure system used in modern DSLR cameras. It measures the light through the camera lens to determine the appropriate flash power needed for a correctly exposed image.

Rule of Thirds

Imagine your photo divided into 9 equal parts with 2 vertical and 2 horizontal lines. The rule of thirds suggests that placing key elements along these lines or their intersections creates a balanced and visually appealing composition.


Astrophotography is the art of capturing images of celestial objects and phenomena, such as stars, planets, galaxies, and nebulae, using specialized photography equipment. It often involves long exposure times to capture the faint light from these objects in the night sky.


Copyright is a way to protect the ownership of creative works like photos. It gives the creator the exclusive right to use and distribute their work, preventing others from copying or using it without permission.

Pinhole Camera

A simple camera without a lens, using a small hole to project an image onto the film or sensor inside. It creates soft-focus, dreamy looking images.

Red Eye

When a person’s eyes appear red in a photo due to the flash reflecting off the blood vessels in the retina. This can be reduced by using red-eye reduction mode on a camera or through editing software.


In photography, a GIF refers to a type of image format that can support both still images and short animations. It allows photographers to create looping animations or showcase a series of images in a compact file format.

Brenizer Method

The Brenizer Method is a photographic technique where you create a high-resolution image with a shallow depth of field by stitching multiple photographs together. This method allows you to achieve the look of an image taken with a wider aperture lens, even if you are using a standard lens.


Post-processing in photography refers to the editing and enhancing of images after they have been captured. This includes adjustments to colors, contrast, sharpness, and other elements to improve the overall quality of the photograph.

Optical Viewfinder (OVF)

An optical viewfinder is a small window at the back of the camera that allows you to see through the lens and frame your shot. It gives you a real-time view of what the camera sees without any digital processing.

Cable Release

A cable release is a device used in photography to remotely trigger the camera’s shutter. It consists of a cable with a button that is connected to the camera, allowing the photographer to take a picture without physically touching the camera. This helps prevent camera shake, especially in long exposure photos.


Cropping in photography refers to the process of removing unwanted parts of an image to improve composition or focus on the main subject. It can help enhance the overall visual impact of a photo by adjusting the frame.

Cross Processing

Cross processing is a technique in photography where film intended for one type of chemical process is developed using an alternative process, resulting in unique and unpredictable color shifts and contrast effects in the final image.

Light Painting

Light painting is a photography technique where you use a long exposure and move a light source around in the frame to create creative streaks or patterns of light in the final image. It involves painting with light to add unique and artistic effects to your photos.

Dots Per Inch (DPI)

Dots Per Inch (DPI) is a measurement used in printing and scanning to determine the resolution of an image. It refers to the number of individual dots that can be placed in a straight line within one inch. In the context of photography, DPI is important for ensuring high-quality prints as it indicates the level of detail and sharpness that can be displayed.


RGB stands for Red, Green, Blue which are the primary colors of light used in digital photography. These colors are combined in various intensities to create a wide range of colors in an image.


A device used to capture photographs by taking pictures of scenes or subjects through a lens onto a light-sensitive surface, such as film or a digital sensor.


A teleconverter is a lens attachment that increases the focal length of a camera lens, allowing photographers to effectively zoom in on distant subjects. It magnifies the image without compromising image quality, but may reduce the maximum aperture of the lens and affect autofocus performance.


SD stands for ‘Secure Digital’ and refers to a type of memory card commonly used in digital cameras to store photos and videos. It comes in different sizes like SD, microSD, and miniSD.

Zebra Pattern

A photography term referring to a striped pattern display on a camera monitor to indicate areas of the image that are overexposed, helping the photographer adjust exposure settings.

Full Frame (FF)

Full Frame (FF) refers to a type of camera sensor that is equivalent to traditional 35mm film size. It generally provides better image quality, higher resolution, and improved low-light performance compared to crop sensor cameras.


PPI stands for pixels per inch, which refers to the density of pixels within an image. The higher the PPI, the clearer and more detailed the image will appear when printed.


In photography, juxtaposition refers to placing two or more elements close together in order to highlight a contrast or create an interesting comparison. This technique can add depth and complexity to the composition of an image.


A cinemagraph is a still photograph that incorporates subtle motion, usually in a looping format. It creates a mesmerizing effect by blending the elements of a static image with a moving element, giving the illusion of a dynamic scene frozen in time.


In photography, a flag refers to any object or material used to block or modify light. Flags are often used to create shadows or prevent light from reaching certain areas of the scene, allowing for more control over the lighting in the photograph.

High-Speed Sync (HSS)

High-Speed Sync (HSS) is a feature on some cameras that allows you to use a flash at shutter speeds faster than the camera’s maximum sync speed. It is helpful when you want to use a wider aperture in bright conditions or freeze motion with a flash.

Lens Hood

A lens hood is a piece of equipment that attaches to the front of a camera lens to help block stray light from entering the lens, which can cause glare, lens flare, and reduce image quality. It helps improve contrast and color saturation in photos by preventing unwanted light from hitting the lens.

SD Association (SDA)

The SD Association is a group of companies that sets standards for SD memory cards. They ensure compatibility and quality in SD cards, which are commonly used in cameras and other electronic devices.


APS-C refers to a type of image sensor size used in many digital cameras. It is smaller than a full-frame sensor, which affects the field of view and depth of field in photographs.

Camera Shake

Camera shake is when the camera moves unintentionally while capturing a photo, resulting in a blurry or distorted image. This can happen due to hand movement, unstable surface, or using a slow shutter speed without proper support.

Natural Light

Light that comes from the sun or other natural sources, used in photography to illuminate subjects without artificial lighting equipment.


A V-flat is a versatile photography tool made up of two large boards hinged together to form a V-shape. It is often used as a background or reflector to control light and shadow in a photo shoot.

Frames Per Second (FPS)

Frames Per Second (FPS) refers to the number of images a camera captures in one second. Higher FPS means smoother motion in videos or more shots to choose from in burst mode.

Blown-Out Highlights

When parts of a photo are excessively bright to the point of losing detail and becoming pure white, often caused by overexposure to light.


A term in photography that refers to the widest aperture a lens can achieve, allowing more light to enter the camera for brighter images in low light conditions.

Tilt-Shift Lens

A special type of lens that allows the photographer to tilt and shift the plane of focus, creating a selective focus effect. This can be used to make miniature scenes appear real or to correct perspective distortion in architectural photography.

Rim Light

Rim light is a technique in photography where light hits the subject from behind, creating a glowing outline around the edges of the subject. This helps separate the subject from the background, adding depth and dimension to the image.


A watermark is a recognizable design or wording that is overlaid on top of a photograph to indicate ownership or protect against unauthorized use. It is usually transparent and placed in a corner of the image.

Chromatic Aberration

Chromatic aberration in photography refers to the effect where colors appear at the edges of objects, caused by the lens failing to focus all colors to the same convergence point. It can result in color fringing or halos around subjects in an image.

Landscape Orientation

Landscape orientation in photography refers to the horizontal positioning of the camera or photograph. It is wider than it is tall, capturing a broader view of the scene in front of the lens. This orientation is often used for capturing landscapes, group photos, and wide shots.

CMOS Sensor

A CMOS sensor is a digital image sensor that converts light into electrical signals for capturing digital images. It is commonly used in digital cameras and smartphones to capture photographs and videos.

Interchangeable Lens Camera (ILC)

An Interchangeable Lens Camera (ILC) is a type of camera that allows you to change lenses. This gives you the flexibility to choose different lenses for different photographic situations, such as wide-angle or telephoto lenses.

Depth of Field (DoF)

Depth of Field refers to the range of distance in a photo that appears sharp and in focus. A shallow depth of field means only a small portion of the image is in focus, while a greater depth of field means more of the image is in focus from foreground to background.


A small screen or optical device on a camera that allows the photographer to frame and compose a shot before taking the picture. It helps photographers to see what the camera is capturing and make adjustments as needed.


TTL stands for Through The Lens. In photography, TTL refers to a metering system where the camera measures the light passing through the lens to determine the optimal exposure settings. This technology allows for automatic adjustments of flash output for a more accurate exposure when capturing images.

Tethered Shooting

Tethered shooting is a technique in photography where the camera is connected to a computer or external device, allowing real-time image transfer and remote control of the camera settings. This method is often used in studio settings or for shooting events where images need to be immediately viewed on a larger screen or shared with clients or collaborators.


Moiré in photography is a wavy pattern that appears when two regular grids overlap at a slight angle, creating interference. It can distort or add an unusual texture to the image.

Aspherical Lens

An aspherical lens is a type of camera lens that has a non-spherical surface. This design helps in reducing certain optical aberrations common in traditional spherical lenses, resulting in sharper images with improved clarity and reduced distortion.

Shutter-Release Button

The button on a camera that is pressed to take a picture by activating the shutter mechanism to capture the image.

Super-Telephoto Lens

A super-telephoto lens is a type of camera lens that has an extremely high focal length, allowing you to capture faraway subjects in great detail. These lenses are commonly used for sports, wildlife, and other types of photography where you need to zoom in on distant subjects.

Telephoto Lens

A type of camera lens that magnifies distant subjects, making them appear closer in the frame. It allows you to capture photos of objects that are far away without having to physically move closer.


Composition refers to how the elements in a photograph are arranged within the frame. It involves factors like framing, balance, symmetry, leading lines, and contrast to create a visually appealing image.

AE Lock

AE Lock, or Automatic Exposure Lock, is a feature on cameras that allows you to lock in the exposure settings while composing your shot. This helps ensure that the exposure remains consistent even if you reframe the image before taking the picture.

Mode Dial

A rotating dial on a camera that allows the photographer to select different shooting modes such as Auto, Manual, Portrait, Landscape, etc. Each mode automatically adjusts settings to suit different shooting conditions and styles.

Self Portrait

A self portrait is a photograph taken by oneself where the photographer is also the subject of the image. It is a way for photographers to express themselves or document their own presence in a creative way.

Tonal Range

Tonal range in photography refers to the range of tones between the darkest black and the brightest white in an image. It includes all the shades of gray in between, representing the contrast and details in a photograph.


Autofocus is a feature in cameras that automatically adjusts the focus of the lens to ensure the subject of the photo appears sharp and clear. This helps to eliminate the need for manual focus adjustments by the photographer.


Symmetry in photography refers to creating balanced and harmonious compositions by arranging elements in the frame to mirror each other. It can add a sense of order and aesthetics to the photograph.


A photogram is a photographic image created without using a camera. It is made by placing objects directly onto photosensitive paper and exposing it to light, resulting in a unique silhouette-like image.


In photography, distortion refers to the alteration of the shape or proportion of objects in an image. This can happen due to the characteristics of the camera lens or the angle at which the photo was taken, resulting in a warped or stretched appearance of subjects.


In photography, the foreground refers to the front part of the scene being captured. It’s the part that is closest to the camera and often helps create depth and dimension in the photograph.

Neutral Density Filter (ND)

A Neutral Density Filter is like sunglasses for your camera. It reduces the amount of light reaching the camera’s sensor without altering the colors in the image. This allows you to use slower shutter speeds or wider apertures in bright conditions without overexposing your photos.

Negative Space

In photography, negative space refers to the area around the main subject of a photo. It is the empty or open space that helps define and emphasize the subject by providing contrast. Negative space can help create visually appealing compositions and draw the viewer’s attention to the intended focal point.


Sharpness in photography refers to the clarity and detail in an image. A sharp image has distinct edges and crisp focus, while a blurry image lacks clear definition.

Aspect Ratio

Aspect ratio refers to the proportional relationship between the width and height of an image. It is often expressed as a ratio such as 4:3 or 16:9, indicating how much wider the image is in comparison to its height. Different aspect ratios are used for different purposes, such as standard TV screens, widescreen monitors, or cinematic films.

Minimum Working Distance

The closest distance at which a camera or lens can focus and still capture a sharp image. It determines how close you can get to your subject while maintaining focus and image quality.


Panorama is a type of photograph that captures a wide view or landscape, often by stitching together multiple images to create one large and immersive picture. It allows you to see more than what a standard photo would show in terms of width.

Megapixel (MP)

Megapixel refers to the unit of measurement for the resolution of a digital camera or image sensor. It indicates how many million pixels are in an image, with higher megapixels generally leading to clearer and more detailed photos.

Photo Walk

A photo walk is when a photographer goes for a leisurely stroll to capture photos of interesting subjects. It’s like a mini photography adventure where you explore different locations to snap pictures.

Minimum Focus Distance

The minimum distance a camera lens can focus on a subject and still produce a sharp image. It determines how close you can get to your subject while maintaining focus.

Forced Perspective

Forced perspective is a photography technique that manipulates the perception of depth in an image. This technique creates an optical illusion where objects appear larger, smaller, closer, or farther away than they actually are. By strategically placing subjects at varying distances from the camera, photographers can achieve creative and surreal effects in their photos.

Adobe Camera Raw

Adobe Camera Raw is a plug-in software developed by Adobe for editing and enhancing raw image files. It allows photographers to make adjustments to exposure, color, contrast, and other aspects of a photograph before converting it to a standard image format like JPEG.

Magic Hour

Magic Hour refers to the time shortly before sunrise and sunset when the lighting is softer, warmer, and more flattering for photography. It is a popular time for capturing beautiful, dreamy images with a magical quality.

Light Meter

A tool used in photography to measure the amount of light present in a scene, helping photographers determine the correct exposure settings for their camera.


An exhibition in photography refers to a public display of photographs, usually organized around a specific theme or showcasing the work of a particular photographer. It can be held in galleries, museums, or other venues to showcase and share photographic art with the public.

Key Light

In photography, the key light is the primary light source that illuminates the subject. It helps to define the shape and form of the subject by creating highlights and shadows. The key light is typically the main light used in a photo shoot to set the overall mood and lighting style.


In photography, ‘archival’ refers to materials that are designed to last a long time without deterioration. It includes papers, inks, and storage methods that are intended to preserve photographs for many years.

Camera Body

The main part of a camera that houses the image sensor, processor, controls, and display screen. It does not include the lens or other accessories.

Nifty Fifty

Nifty Fifty is a nickname for a 50mm prime lens, known for its versatility and sharp image quality. It is popular among photographers for its ability to capture images with a natural perspective similar to what the human eye sees.

Digital Single-lens Reflex (DSLR) Camera

A type of camera that uses a mirror mechanism to reflect light from the lens into an optical viewfinder, allowing the photographer to see exactly what will be captured in the image. It also utilizes a digital sensor to capture the image instead of film, providing better control and quality in photography.


Hyperlapse is a technique in photography where multiple still images are taken from slightly different positions to create a fast-paced and smooth motion effect in a final video, usually used to showcase the passage of time or movement in a visually captivating way.


Midtones refer to the tonal range in a photograph that falls between shadows and highlights. They represent the middle range of brightness and contribute to the overall balance and richness of an image.

Wide-Angle Lens

A wide-angle lens is a type of camera lens that has a wider field of view than a standard lens. It allows you to capture more of the scene in your photos, making it great for landscapes, architecture, and group shots.


A fancy word for an old-timey photo! Back in the olden days, people used a process called daguerreotype to capture images on a shiny metal plate. It’s like a vintage selfie but much more complicated than just snapping a pic on your phone.


A photograph focusing on a person’s face or body, often capturing their expression and personality.

Focal Length

Focal length is the distance between the lens and the image sensor when the subject is in focus. A shorter focal length captures a wider angle of view while a longer focal length magnifies distant objects, bringing them closer.


In photography, ‘stop’ refers to the unit of measurement to control exposure. Changing settings by one stop doubles or halves the amount of light reaching the camera sensor.

Polarizing Filter

A polarizing filter is a camera accessory that helps reduce glare and reflections from non-metallic surfaces such as water or glass. It can enhance colors and increase contrast in photos by selectively blocking light waves that are not aligned in a particular direction.

Medium Format (MF)

Medium format refers to a type of camera format that uses larger film or image sensor compared to standard 35mm format. This results in higher resolution and image quality, making it popular among professional photographers for its ability to capture more detail.


In photography, a histogram is a graph that represents the distribution of brightness levels in an image. It shows how many pixels in the image are of a certain brightness, ranging from dark shadows to bright highlights. Photographers use histograms to analyze the exposure of an image and make adjustments to ensure proper lighting and contrast.


Aperture refers to the opening in a camera lens that controls the amount of light entering the camera. It is measured in f-stops, where a lower number like f/2.8 means a larger opening and more light, while a higher number like f/16 means a smaller opening and less light.

Shutter Speed

Shutter speed refers to how long the camera shutter stays open to capture an image. A fast shutter speed freezes motion, while a slow shutter speed creates motion blur.

Crop Factor

Crop factor is a term in photography that refers to the ratio of a camera’s sensor size in comparison to a full-frame sensor. It affects the field of view and focal length of lenses when used with a camera that has a smaller sensor size.

Contrast Detection Autofocus

Contrast Detection Autofocus is a technology used in cameras to automatically focus on a subject by analyzing the contrast in the scene. It works by detecting areas of high contrast, where edges meet, and fine-tuning the focus until the area becomes sharpest. This method is slower than other autofocus systems but is accurate, especially in situations with good lighting and clear contrast.

Soft Light

Soft light in photography refers to gentle, diffused light that creates smooth transitions between highlights and shadows. It often leads to a flattering and more even illumination of the subject, reducing harsh contrast and creating a serene atmosphere in the image.

Angle of View (AOV)

Angle of view (AOV) in photography refers to the extent of a scene that a camera lens can capture. It determines how much of the subject and surrounding environment will be included in the final photograph.

Spot Metering

Spot metering is a camera setting where only a small area in the frame is used to determine the exposure for the entire image. This allows the photographer to accurately expose for specific subjects or areas in the scene, rather than relying on overall lighting conditions.


In photography, shadows refer to the darkness created when light is blocked by an object. They add depth and contrast to an image, creating interesting visual effects.


Photography is the art or practice of creating images by recording light on a sensitive surface, such as film or a digital sensor, using a camera.


An intervalometer is a device or feature in a camera that allows for automated capturing of images at set intervals, commonly used for creating time-lapse photography or long exposure shots.

Hybrid Camera

A type of camera that combines features of both digital and film cameras. It allows photographers to capture images using both electronic sensor technology and traditional film processes, offering a versatile approach to photography.

Kicker Light

A kicker light is a type of light used in photography to create separation between the subject and the background. It is positioned to illuminate the edges of the subject, providing depth and dimension to the image.

Compact Camera

A compact camera is a small and lightweight camera that is designed for easy use and portability. It typically has a fixed lens and is great for everyday photography like capturing family moments or travel snapshots.


EXIF stands for Exchangeable Image File Format. It is a standard for storing metadata in image files, such as camera settings, date and time, shutter speed, aperture, ISO, and more. This information can be accessed to review details about how a particular photo was taken.


Zoom in photography refers to adjusting the focal length of the lens to bring the subject closer or further away. It allows you to magnify distant objects or capture more of a scene without physically moving closer.

Reproduction Ratio

Reproduction ratio in photography refers to the ratio of the size of the subject to the size of its image on the camera’s sensor or film. It indicates how much larger or smaller the subject appears in the final image.


In photography, a buffer refers to the temporary storage area in a camera where images are stored before they can be processed further. It helps prevent delays and ensures smooth capture of multiple shots in rapid succession.

Rembrandt Lighting

Rembrandt lighting is a technique in photography where the subject is illuminated from the side, creating a triangle of light on the cheek opposite the light source. It creates a sense of drama and dimension in the portrait by emphasizing the contours of the face.

Prime Lens

A prime lens is a type of camera lens that has a fixed focal length, meaning it cannot zoom in or out. Prime lenses are known for their high image quality and wide aperture capabilities, making them great for low-light situations and creating a shallow depth of field.

Lens Mount

Lens mount refers to the mechanism by which a camera lens attaches to the camera body. Different camera manufacturers have proprietary lens mounts which may not be compatible with lenses from other brands. It ensures that the lens fits securely on the camera and allows for proper communication between the lens and the camera body.


Adobe is a software company that provides programs like Adobe Photoshop and Lightroom, which are commonly used in photography for editing and enhancing images.

High Dynamic Range (HDR)

High Dynamic Range in photography refers to a technique where multiple images of the same scene are taken at different exposure levels and then blended together. This results in a final image with a greater dynamic range, showcasing both highlights and shadows in more detail. HDR helps to create photos with more vibrant colors and better overall contrast.

Active Autofocus

Active autofocus is a feature in cameras that continuously adjusts the focus to keep subjects sharp and clear. It works by emitting infrared light or ultrasonic waves to measure the distance and lock onto the subjects, ensuring fast and accurate focusing during photography.


IBIS stands for In-Body Image Stabilization, which is a mechanism found in cameras to reduce blurriness caused by shaky hands while taking photos or recording videos. It works by moving the camera sensor to compensate for any unwanted movements, resulting in clearer and sharper images.


A selfie is a photograph that a person takes of themselves, often using a smartphone or camera. It’s a self-portrait usually shared on social media.


Vibrance refers to the intensity of colors in a photograph. Increasing vibrance makes the colors appear more vivid and saturated, enhancing the overall look of the image.

Exposure Compensation

Exposure compensation is a feature on cameras that allows you to manually adjust the exposure settings to make your photos brighter or darker. This is useful when the camera’s automatic exposure doesn’t quite give you the result you want.

Sync Speed

Sync speed in photography refers to the fastest shutter speed at which the camera can synchronize with a flash unit to capture an evenly exposed image. Going beyond the sync speed may result in part of the image being dark or black due to the timing mismatch between the flash and the shutter.

Portrait Orientation

Portrait orientation refers to the vertical alignment of a photograph where the height is greater than the width. This is commonly used for capturing images of people or objects standing upright.

Film Photography

Film photography refers to capturing images using film cameras that use photographic film instead of digital sensors. The exposed film is later developed into photographs.


In photography, contrast refers to the difference between the light and dark areas in an image. It can help make subjects stand out and add depth to a photograph.

Loop Lighting

In photography, loop lighting is a technique where the main light is positioned slightly to the side of the subject and above eye level, creating a small loop-shaped shadow under the nose. This lighting pattern is often used to create a classic and flattering portrait look.

Phase Detection Autofocus (PDAF)

Phase Detection Autofocus (PDAF) is a technology used in cameras to quickly determine the correct focus point by comparing phases of light rays from different parts of the lens. It helps in capturing sharp and focused images faster.


A negative in photography is a reversed image of the actual scene. It is produced on light-sensitive film during the capturing process and appears dark where the original image is light and vice versa. Negatives are used to create positive prints in the darkroom.

Fill Light

Fill light is a technique in photography where additional lighting is used to reduce the shadows created by the main light source. It helps balance out the contrast in a photo, ensuring details in darker areas are visible without overexposing the lighter areas.


F-stop is a term used in photography to describe the size of the aperture in a camera lens. A smaller F-stop number indicates a larger aperture, allowing more light to enter the camera. Larger apertures (smaller F-stop numbers) are useful in low-light conditions or for achieving a shallow depth of field.


ASA is a measurement of film speed in photography. It indicates how sensitive the film is to light. A lower ASA value means less sensitive film, while a higher ASA value means more sensitivity to light.

Aperture Priority

Aperture Priority is a shooting mode on a camera where you can manually set the aperture while the camera selects the appropriate shutter speed for proper exposure. This mode gives you control over depth of field, allowing you to blur or sharpen the background of your photos.

Shutter Priority

Shutter Priority is a shooting mode on a camera where the photographer selects the desired shutter speed, and the camera automatically adjusts the aperture to properly expose the image. This mode gives photographers control over capturing motion in their photos.

Lens Flare

Lens flare is when unwanted light enters the camera lens, causing hazy or scattered patches in the final image. It can sometimes create a cool effect but usually considered a distraction in photography.


Geotagging in photography refers to the process of adding geographical information to your photos. This information often includes the exact location where the photo was taken, allowing you to organize and search for photos based on their location. Geotagging can be done manually or automatically using GPS-enabled cameras or mobile devices.


RAW is a file format used in photography to store all the data captured by the camera sensor without any processing. It contains more information than JPEG files and allows for more flexibility during post-processing.

AF Lock

AF Lock, or Auto Focus Lock, is a feature on cameras that allows you to focus on a specific subject and lock that focus in place. This can be useful when you want to maintain focus on one subject even if you move the camera or when your main subject is not in the center of the frame.

Focus Point

Focus point in photography refers to the specific area within your frame that you want to be sharply in focus. By selecting a focus point, you are telling your camera where to focus, ensuring that the subject or object at that specific point is clear and sharp in the image.

Back Button Focus

Back Button Focus is a focusing technique where the autofocus function is assigned to a button on the back of the camera instead of the shutter button. This allows the photographer to separate the focusing and shutter release actions, giving more control over when to focus and when to capture an image.


A scrim is a translucent material that is used in photography to diffuse or soften harsh light. It helps to create more flattering lighting by reducing the intensity of direct light sources, resulting in a more even and gentle illumination of the subject.

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